The Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Review

Minimally Invasive and Endoscopic Approach to Esophageal Perforation

1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey

Eurasian J Med 2022; 54: 100-105
DOI: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2022.21135
Read: 189 Downloads: 82 Published: 01 February 2022

Although esophageal perforation is rare, it is a life-threatening condition. The esophagus is very sensitive to rupture and perforation due to the absence of a serosal layer. More than half of the esophageal perforations are iatrogenic and most occur during endoscopy. Around 55% of esophageal injuries occur in the intrathoracic region, 25% in the cervical region, and 20% in the abdominal region. Clinical manifestations and mortality are related to various components such as the etiology, localization, type of injury, severity of contamination, injury to adjacent mediastinal structures, and time from perforation to treatment. When perforation occurs in the esophagus, saliva, stomach contents, bile fluid, and other secretions may pass into the mediastinum causing mediastinal emphysema, inflammation followed by mediastinal necrosis, and chemical mediastinitis. Early clinical suspicion and imaging are essential for successful treatment. Despite advances in technology and treatment, the morbidity and mortality rate due to esophageal perforation is still higher than 20% according to the reported studies. Until now, the main treatment of esophageal perforation was the surgical approach. Nowadays, endoluminal procedures such as endoscopic vacuum therapy, endoscopic stent placement, endoscopic clip closure, endoscopic suturing, and tissue adhesives have started to be applied more. In this review, the minimally invasive and endoscopic approach methods suitable for esophageal perforation according to the characteristics of the patients and the structure of the perforation were examined.

Cite this article as: Eroglu A, Aydin Y, Ulas AB. Minimally invasive and endoscopic approach to esophageal perforation. Eurasian J Med 2022;54(1):100-105.

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